Epidemic control

Tetanus: a fatal injury caused by a toothpick

Publishdate:2015-09-15 Views:197

Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by tetanus invading human wounds, growing and reproducing in anaerobic environment, producing neurotoxin and causing muscle tonic spasm. Its mortality is very high.

Wang, 32, was stabbed in the right foot by a toothpick seven days ago. He thought he was strong and didn't go to the hospital to deal with it. Muscle soreness, difficulty in opening mouth and other symptoms suddenly appeared yesterday, and was diagnosed with severe tetanus disease. In everyone's life, it's hard to avoid minor injuries such as skin laceration. Many people think it's not a big problem, as long as they recover naturally in a few days. In fact, if they don't disinfect, bandage and treat the symptoms in time, it may lead to the occurrence of tetanus. Suffering from tetanus, in addition to suffering from a lot of trouble, can not work normally, and even lead to death, we must pay great attention to it. Therefore, we need to know more about the common sense of tetanus infection at ordinary times. Here is a brief introduction.

What is tetanus?

Tetanus is an acute infectious disease characterized by tetanus invading human wounds, growing and reproducing in anaerobic environment, producing neurotoxin and causing muscle tonic spasm. Its mortality is very high. The vast majority of patients with tetanus have a history of trauma, and the wounds are usually accompanied by pyogenic infection. Generally, the wound is deep, and there are foreign bodies and necrotic tissue residues. Some patients have small and hidden wounds, which are often ignored by patients, resulting in delayed diagnosis and treatment, and even serious consequences due to the development of the disease. The incubation period is 1-2 weeks, and the longest is several months.

How is tetanus caused?

Under normal conditions, tetanus bacteria widely exist in soil and human and animal feces, and they are distributed in nature in the form of spores, especially in soil. This bacterium has strong resistance to environment and can endure boiling. Tetanus may occur in people with various open injuries, such as fire injuries, open fractures, burns, and even small wounds, such as prickles or rust nails.

However, it should be noted that there are tetanus bacteria in the wound, which does not necessarily cause the disease. In addition to the strong virulence, large quantity and low immunity of the bacteria, the main inducing factor of tetanus is the hypoxia environment. Therefore, when the wound is narrow and deep, ischemic, necrotic tissue is numerous, and drainage is not smooth, an anoxic environment suitable for the growth and reproduction of the bacteria is formed. If there is aerobic bacteria infection at the same time, the latter will consume the residual oxygen in the wound, and tetanus is more likely to occur. The calcium chloride contained in the soil can cause tissue necrosis when the wound is partially anoxic due to the infection of other pyogenic bacteria that need to be oxidized, which is conducive to the propagation of anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, the stab wound of rust nail or wood thorn with soil is easy to cause tetanus.

So what should I do if I get hurt accidentally?

The main measures include the correct treatment of the wound, the prevention of infection, and the use of passive immunity to prevent the disease after the injury.

1. First go to a regular hospital for wound treatment. Strengthen the debridement treatment of wound. If the wound can be found and there is necrotic tissue in the wound and the drainage is not smooth, the wound can be treated and fully drained under good anesthesia and spasm control, and the local area can be washed with 3% hydrogen peroxide solution. Some wounds seem to have healed, so we should carefully check whether there is a sinus or dead cavity under the scab.

2. Inject tetanus antitoxin (TAT). If the skin is only scratched and the wound is not deep, it is only necessary to do a proper debridement, or wipe it with disinfectant such as red liquid, without injecting tetanus antitoxin. If there is a deep wound, or the wound is polluted by dirt, iron embroidery and other pollutants, a certain amount of Tat (tetanus antitoxin serum) must be injected into the hospital under the guidance of the doctor. Because most of tetanus bacteria grow in soil and rust, tetanus antitoxin should be injected when the wound is deep, contaminated with soil or injured by rust like ironware. The commonly used dose is 1500 U intramuscular injection. If the wound is heavily polluted or injured for more than 12 hours, the dose is doubled and the effective effect is maintained for about 10 days. Allergy test should be done before injection. In case of allergy in Tat intradermal test, desensitization method can be used for injection.

3. Choose oral and intravenous antibiotics according to the wound condition, and observe the wound condition.